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Images © Nikolaus Urban // WiRe

In the series “33 questions” we introduce, in no particular order, our WiRe Fellows who are currently working on a research project here at the University of Münster. Why 33? Well, if we think of the rush hour of life, it is kind of the age that lies in its middle. And we also like the number😉.

In today’s episode we are speaking with Dr. Nieves Fuentes-Sánchez, psychologist and passionate lover of emotions.

1. What motivated you to work in the field of neuroscience of emotions?

We are emotional beings. Emotions drive us to act, and at other times they stop us. During my degree, I became interested in understanding this psychological process, its neurophysiological correlates, and its relationship with other related processes such as cognition. That’s why I decided to start collaborating with a research group, where later I did my doctoral thesis.

During all these years I have learnt that emotions are essential for our lives and, therefore, understanding this psychological process is essential to the comprehension of normal and pathological behaviour.

2. Describe your daily work in three words.

Thinking, Reading and Writing.

3. Describe your research topic in three words.

Emotions, Psychophysiology and Brain.

4. A good neuroscientist needs…?

Dr Nieves Fuentes Sanchez in her lab at the University of Münster.

For me, a good neuroscientist needs to be patient and resilient. The scientific career is slow, and rewards often come after a long time. Additionally, it is important to be curious, meticulous and, of course, it is important you enjoy certain tasks such as reading and writing.

5. What is the best experience you have had as a scientist / researcher?

I have had many good experiences as a researcher. One of the most beautiful experiences was defending my doctoral thesis after four years working a lot. Another good experience is related to my stay in Münster. Without doubt, it is a nice experience that is allowing me to learn many things in a new environment.

6. What was your biggest research disaster?

Luckily, I haven’t had a huge research disaster. I was very afraid that the results of my thesis would not be significant (the fear of the p-value) because I had worked hard on the project. Fortunately, the results were very interesting. Additionally, that fear led me to learn that non-significant results are also important for the advancement of science.

The pupil can be seen from the control room in this computer. This program allows to start recording the signal in the magnetoencephalography, calibrate it and validate it.
This is the computer to record the brain activity. In this screen we can see that the head localization is correct, and everything is OK to start the recording. 

7. Which (historical) important scientist would you like to have dinner with? What would you ask?

I would have dinner with Jaak Panksepp because I have read a lot of his research within affective neuroscience (he is said to be the father of affective neuroscience). Jaak Panksepp discovered that there are seven neurobiological networks similar between species and said some interesting things such as rats laugh. At that dinner, I would ask him a little more about his theory and, additionally, I would ask him about his path as a researcher because I read in an interview that he had many people opposed to his ideas.

8. If time and money were no object: Which research project would you like to do?

I would like to continue investigating emotional processing using different techniques (brain and peripheral physiological measures) not only in healthy people but also in people with psychological disorders such as depression, anxiety, or people with dementia.

9. What is your favorite research discipline other than your own?

Clinical psychology. It would be great if in the future I could combine affective neuroscience with clinical psychology.

10. What do you consider the greatest achievement in the history of science / your field?

In my opinion, one of the most important achievements within psychology has related to beginning to understand behaviour and the brain (we still have a lot to know). We now know a great deal about normal and pathological behaviour and this allows us to provide much more effective treatments. This increase in knowledge has come about thanks to the development of many tools such as the functional magnetic resonance (fMRI), magnetoencephalography or the development of questionnaires.

11. Which experience in the world of science disappointed you most?

I would say that the most disappointing experience is related to the process of grant applications. In many cases the process is very slow (you can spend 9 months waiting for a grant resolution!) and, additionally, the evaluation process relies on things that, in most cases, don’t depend on your value as a researcher. This makes the process quite difficult and tiring.

12. How did you survive your PhD time?

I am not sure how I survived! I’m just kidding! Even though the PhD time has many bad times, I think that the good ones have been more important to me. In the bad times I’ve done things that make me feel good, such as going to nature or spending time with my family or friends. I think this has been the best therapy over those years and, of course, currently as a postdoctoral researcher.

13. What direct or indirect relevance does your research have for society?

After the task in the MEG, participants have to evaluate the music.  

The aim of my research is to understand emotional processing. Emotions and their regulation are essential to our everyday life. It is known that problems in emotional reactivity and regulation (emotion dysregulation) are related to psychological problems, such as depression or anxiety. Therefore, understanding this psychological process could allow us a better understanding of psychopathology and, as a consequence, help us to consider new treatments to psychological problems.

14. How did you imagine the life of a scientist / researcher when you were a high school student?

I related scientists with serious people that work in a laboratory using difficult equipment (and, obviously, in white coat).

15. Is it actually different? In what way?

My idea is completely different now. I have learnt that there are many types of scientists, depending on the field. For example, there are scientists that do not wear a white coat or use difficult equipment and are equally researchers. Furthermore, I have realised that a scientist spends many hours thinking, reading and writing (more than I thought!). Lastly, not necessarily a scientist is a freak, isolated or serious person.

16. What do you like most about the “lifestyle” of a scientist? And what least of it?

I like many things about the researcher’s life. I really appreciate being able to materialise my own ideas (it is very nice to have a research question and to be able to solve it). Furthermore, this work allows me to think a lot and promotes my creativity (for me, it’s fun to spend time writing or thinking about a new design). Lastly, I love travelling and being a researcher allows me to meet new countries and cities (for example, thanks to the WiRe fellowship I’m getting to know Münster and other German cities).

Despite all the good things, there are some things that I don’t like so much. One of them is the instability and the difficulty to obtain a grant, especially during the postdoc period.

17. Do you think your career would have evolved differently if you were a man?

Brain stimulation machine. The picture shows the machine with the sensors connected.

For now, I think that my career wouldn’t have been different if I were a man. I consider that the difference could appear later, if I decided to have children, for example.

18. If you were the research minister of Germany, what would you do to improve the situation of women in science?

I would increase the number of postdoc positions and I would facilitate the access of women to those job positions. Additionally, I would increase the number of women in higher positions.

19. How would you explain your research area and topic to a child?

We have emotions when we are dealing with things that are relevant to us. For example, if you fail an important exam, you’ll probably feel sadness. By contrast, if you see your best friend after the summer, you’ll probably feel happiness. Those emotions allow us to react accordingly to the situation.

When we feel an emotion, we have different thoughts (we can think “this is disgusting!” when we eat something bad), but also we have changes in our body and brain. For example, if I’m afraid of cockroaches and I see one in my room, I’m likely to feel an increase in my heart rate, I’ll sweat more, and my breathing will increase. Understanding what emotions are, the individual differences in the emotional processing (for example, do we feel emotions similarly independently of age or gender?) or how we regulate emotions is essential to understand our behaviour. Additionally, if we understand this psychological process, we will be able to develop more effective psychological therapies and, therefore, we will be more effective in helping those people who need our help as psychologists.

20. What is the biggest challenge for you when it comes to balancing family and career?

In order to correctly place the sensors, the head of each participant must be measured. This allows for accurate stimulation of specific areas of the brain – in present case: the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

I live far away from my family and some of my friends. I have to plan my time and work very well to be able to visit them regularly.

21. How do you master this / these challenge(s)?

Basically, organising time very well and trying to be very productive when I am working. Then, during the weekends, I don’t usually work, so I can share time with my family and friends.

22. How often do you as a friend / partner / mother / daughter feel guilty when you have to meet a deadline – again?

I don’t usually feel guilty. I try to work during my working hours and, therefore, I normally have my weekends or rest hours free. In case I need to work during the weekend (in special cases) I don’t feel guilty because I would be doing something necessary for my work.

23. How did you imagine your future as a child? What profession did you want to pursue?

When I was a child, I wanted to be many things. I remember once when I was a little girl and a notary came to my grandfather’s house. He only had to sign one piece of paper, and the notary charged a lot. At that time, I wanted to be a notary. It was during my adolescence that I noticed that I wanted to be a psychologist 🙂

24. How do you keep your head clear when you are stressed?

When I’m stressed, I like listening to music, hiking, and spending time with friends.

25. What is your favorite German word?

Schätzchen.

26. What makes you most happy about the world?

Seeing my family and friends in good health, spending time with them and laughing a lot, and being free to do what I want to do at any given moment.

27. What or who inspired you to become a psychologist?

Adjusting the machine to perform brain stimulation. Starting the stimulation.

When I was a teenager, I was interested in understanding human behaviour and brain functioning. Before finalising high school, I had the subject of Psychology. At that moment, I realised that I wanted to be a psychologist. I had some problems accessing the degree, but after a lot of persistence I got it.

28. What worries you most about the world?

The existence of some illnesses.

29. Your favourite TV series?

I like How I Met Your Mother. This TV series allows me to disconnect and laugh on tired days. Additionally, I think it’s nice to see the friendship between them and how their lives are changing with time.

30. Which hobby have you given up for a life in academia?

I stopped painting when I started to study psychology.

31. If you could travel in time: in which epoch and at which discovery or event would you have liked to have been there?

I have always been interested in the Renaissance. During that epoch great inventions were developed and, in general, culture was given great importance.

32. What is your favourite place to relax from research during the pandemic?

I used to go to the beach for a walk and relax. I am lucky that in Castellón (Spain) there are beautiful and little known beaches.

33. What is your favourite place in Münster?

I love many places in Münster. I would choose all those that have to do with nature such as Aasee park, Schlosspark, etc., but also downtown.

I was surprised with the great resources offered by the university. Additionally, I like a lot the Institute where I’m working. There are many useful resources for researching.

Cover Image © Nikolaus Urban // WiRe

In the series “33 questions” we introduce, in no particular order, our WiRe Fellows who are currently working on a research project here at the University of Münster. Why 33? Well, if we think of the rush hour of life, it is kind of the age that lies in the middle. And we also like the number 😉

In today’s episode, we are speaking with Ruxandra, Analytical Chemist – let’s see what she has to say!

A Look Into the Research of Dr Arianna Parnigoni, Biologist and Current WiRe Fellow

Text & Concept: Dr. Arianna Parnigoni

Editing: Dr. Astrid Burgbacher, Katharina Grohmann, Alison Seiler

Cover Photo: © Nikolaus Urban // WiRe

October was Breast Cancer Awareness Month, and in this post we will discuss a little about what breast cancer is and how we can defeat it!

Breast cancer is a major public health issue – 1 out of 8 women are diagnosed with this kind of tumour. Even more worrying, breast cancer ranks first not only for incidence in the vast majority of countries (159 of 185 countries) but also for mortality in 110 countries worldwide, accounting for 1 in 6 cancer deaths in women.

“One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind” – Neil Armstrong

Humans have and will always be explorers. From accessing remote lands on earth to exploring space, Humans are curious and will always try to set foot where no one has ever been before. But we don’t need to go as far as the outer-space to access new inaccessible places: we can just look at the nanoscopic world around us! Put your lab coat and cosmonaut helmet on and let’s show Neil Armstrong a few new places to plant his flag! 

Difficulties of exploring the 3D-world on the molecular level

Molecules are an assembly of different atoms (such as Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen or Oxygen for examples) sharing electrons. There are molecules that are planar (2D), and others that exist in 3 dimensions. A lot of research has already been done to explore the spaces on 2D-molecules. But when we add an extra dimension, things tend to become more complicated…

3D-molecules can look very similar, have the same atoms in the same order, and still have different properties. This is what chemists call enantiomers. Enantiomers are mirror-image molecules that can’t be stacked on top of each other. Like our hands! We have the same fingers on both hands, in the same order (thumb next to the index finger, which is next to the middle finger etc…). Our hands are images of each other in a mirror but can’t be stacked on top of each other. Consequently, our hands don’t show the same abilities: we will be able to write with the right hand while the left one is clumsier, for example. 

© Dr Louise Ruyet

This small geometrical difference can also drastically impact the properties of molecules! For example, methamphetamine can exist as two different enantiomers. One (the right hand) is the active compound of Vicks Inhaler, an over-the-counter medicine used to clear your nose when you have a cold. The other enantiomer (left hand) is an illicit drug. This small geometrical difference has a huge impact on how our body is reacting to the two molecules! Therefore, Vicks has to be extra careful so that the medicine they are selling is in the right form and will produce the desired effect. You would not want to be high on a hard drug after taking medicine for a cold!

© Dr Louise Ruyet

But how does Vicks manage to produce only the right enantiomer and not the illicit drug? Two main methodologies can be used by the company to synthesize the desired enantiomer:

  1. Vicks could use traditional synthetic methodologies where there is no control over which enantiomer is formed preferentially.  They would obtain both enantiomers in a 50/50 ratio, which would then need to be separated. This separation is extremely difficult due to the structural similarities of the two molecules and is also going to generate a lot of waste, as they are going to discard D-methamphetamine (or maybe open another business on the side – Breaking Bad, anyone?) to only keep L-methamphetamine.
  2. Vicks could use a more recent method, where only one enantiomer is formed selectively using a chiral catalyst. A chiral catalyst is a molecule which is going to “block” one face of the molecule and allow the reaction to happen either on the “front” or on the “back” of the molecule and therefore create one enantiomer preferentially. This is what we call enantioselective synthesis. This is what my research is about! 

Organocatalyst, a cleaner fuel to explore new chemical spaces

In the past, most of the chiral catalysts used were metal species, but these catalysts come with several drawbacks. First, we only have a limited amount of rare metals on earth. This problem has been particularly highlighted recently with the Russian-Ukrainian conflict, which is greatly impacting the price of these rare metals. Finally, metals pollute – not only our environment but also our body. If a metal catalyst is required during the synthesis of a drug, all traces of metal species must be removed from the drug before giving it to a patient, which is extremely complicated and time consuming. 

In the last decades, an alternative has been found and rewarded by the Nobel prize in 2021: organocatalysis. This time, we are not using metal species but small organic molecules (such as proline for example). In comparison to metal catalysts, organocatalysts are abundant on earth, less toxic and cheaper. In my research I am using a special type of organocatalyst containing Iodine.  

© Dr Louise Ruyet

3D Fluorinated molecules, the ultimate exploration goal

We have our goal (to access 3D molecules and synthesize one enantiomer selectively), we have our team of astronaut/chemist, we have the rocket filled with green fuel (organocatalyst). Where should we go now? What planet should we explore? 

Have you ever heard of fluorine containing molecules?  Probably not, and yet I am 100% sure you are consuming fluorinated molecules daily. If you have ever used a Teflon pan, took a drug, or gardened, you are likely to have been using fluorinated molecules, as more than 25% of the pharmaceuticals and 40% of agrochemicals contain at least one fluorine atom. 

In most cases, these fluorinated molecules are still in 2D. The role of the fluorine atom is to change the physical/chemical properties of the 2D molecules to make them more efficient. For example, the presence of fluorine is going to make it easier for the fluorinated drug to go through the membrane in our bodies, allowing it to reach the desired site of action faster and be quickly active.

In 3D molecules, fluorine is going to have an additional role. Usually, for a drug to be active, it needs to interact with a receptor in our body, just like a key is going to interact with a lock to open a door. The receptors (locks) are sensitive to the geometry of the molecule (key). Only one key can unlock the door, and only one enantiomer can activate the receptor. Therefore, a big goal of chemical companies and of my research today at the WWU is to finally be able to access and control 3D fluorinated molecules with the help of our iodine organocatalyst. These 3D molecules, which were still unexplored spaces until now, could be the high-value added molecules/keys of tomorrow!

After that, rockets and spacesuits will no longer be required to have our head in the stars!

© Dr Louise Ruyet

Images © WiRe / Nikolaus Urban

In the series “33 questions” we introduce, in no particular order, our WiRe Fellows who are currently working on a research project here at the University of Münster. Why 33? Well, if we think of the rush hour of life, it is kind of the age that lies in the middle. And we also like the number😉.

In today’s episode we are speaking with Arianna, biologist working on cancer research.

Cover Image © Dr. Yuchen Chen

In the series “33 questions” we introduce, in no particular order, our WiRe Fellows who are currently working on a research project here at the University of Münster. Why 33? Well, if we think of the rush hour of life, it is kind of the age that lies in its middle. And we also like the number😉.

In today’s episode we are speaking with Yuchen, physicist and passionate lover of functional materials.

by Dr. Mariagiulia Giuffré, Legal Scholar

Throughout history, people have always migrated from one place to another. Ever since the earliest humans began to spread from Africa thousands of years ago, people have been on the move, driven by climate, food availability, and other environmental factors [1]. Today about three percent of the world’s population live outside of their country of origin due to famine, climate change, persecution, security, demography, poverty and human rights abuses. Within this broadly mixed category of people on the move, refugees fleeing persecution and gross human rights violations in their home country represent the most vulnerable group, and are often unable to obtain personal identification and travel documents. As uninvited aliens, refugees are often perceived as a menace to the peace and internal security of the host State while also having no community and no linkage with their home country. As such, they are treated as outsiders whose claims must first be carefully assessed in order to decide whether they are legitimate and worthy of assistance. States’ endeavours to impose ever more robust barriers against those who seek to enter their national territories continue to accelerate and have therefore led to a ‘tension between generosity towards those at home and wariness of those from abroad’ [2].  

by Dr Anna Podgórska, Plant Biologist

Much worse than your personal carbon footprint: The nitrogen footprint of industrial agriculture

In a  perfect world, plants  would be able to grow under steady environmental conditions, have sufficient water and microelement supply, avoid the dangers of herbivores and pathogens, and receive just the right amount of light. Looking more specifically at a plant’s chemical ability to flourish, one of the most important contributors to its growth is the element Nitrogen. Plants require this mineral element in the greatest amount (2% of plant dry matter) among absorbed macronutrients. Nitrogen is incorporated into the structure of proteins, DNA, chlorophyll and all kinds of essential molecules, so no wonder it is considered a building block of an organism. 

Nitrogen based fertilizers as a stepping stone to the plant’s perfect world?

Modern agricultural technology uses a few different tricks in attempting to create a plant’s perfect world – adjusting the environment that plants are grown in, using greenhouses, artificial irrigation, chemical pest control, artificial illumination, and, of course: fertilizers, mostly based on different forms of nitrogen. Given the fact that our world is covered in an atmosphere containing mostly nitrogen (the harmless nitrogen gas N2 is, with almost 80% , the main component of the air) – you might wonder why agriculture even has the need to use nitrogen derivatives. This is simply due to the fact that, unfortunately, the air’s nitrogen gas is not accessible for use by organisms. Plants are dependent on inorganic nitrogen forms supplied through the soil. So modern agriculture resorts to various derivatives of nitrogen – as a result of these interventions, a remarkable boost in crop quality and yield has been achieved over the recent decades. 

However, all these measures come at the cost of excessive resource use and require large amounts of energy, water and fossil fuels, making agriculture the main global consumer of fresh water and the major emitter of CO2.  But this is only half of the story. While it is commonly known that our excessive emission of carbon dioxide leads to an increase in the planet’s average temperature, which leads to devastating changes in the climate – the damage done by derivatives of nitrogen that are used in industrial fertilizers are less known. 

Let’s have a closer look at nitrogen derivatives commonly used in modern agricultural fertilizers

One of the derivatives is nitrous gas (N2O) –  commonly known as ‘laughing gas’. You might know this gas as an anesthetic used in medicine. (Just a side remark: short term exposure to laughing gas is not a problem, but long-term exposure would be dangerous for humans as nitrogen gas, when carrying oxygen, can act as a potent oxidizer). Especially at high temperatures, like on hot summer days, it can be classified as toxic since it can oxidize all kinds of biomolecules. At even higher temperatures it is used as an oxidizer in rocket propellants or engines.  

Nitrous – alias “laughing” gas – is actually not that funny for our environment

The environmental effects that ‘laughing gases’ have are actually not that funny: Nitrous oxide is a particularly potent greenhouse gas as it is over 300 times (!) more effective at trapping heat in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide. This gas damages the ozone layer. Overall human-caused N2O emissions have increased by 30% over the past four decades. And what is important to mention here: Half of the N2O is generated by agriculture through the use of fertilizers. No wonder that industrial agriculture is a significant contributor to climate change. Additionally, nitrogen oxide causes an increase in particulate matter and acid rain, which definitely aren’t nice side effects. 

And there is yet another harmful sibling of Nitrogen: Nitrate

Another main nitrogen derivative used in agricultural fertilizers is nitrate (NO3-). Unfortunately, nitrate used in agriculture doesn’t fare much better than nitrous gas:  Plants which absorb high rates of NO3 after the harvest may be big and look nice and green, but are not really healthy. Additionally, consuming NO3- through food may be dangerous for humans. It can cause various issues like methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome), hypertrophic changes in the thyroid, and the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds, which are potent carcinogens. 

But probably the most harmful effect of the use of nitrate-based fertilizers is, that most of its NO3- is washed out of the soil solution or evaporates into the atmosphere in the form of potent NOx-greenhouse gases. NO3- leaching is a major reason for water pollution, which affects eutrophication of all water reservoirs. The content of NO3- in drinking water is a major danger for human health, even in well developed countries and areas like the Münsterland, where despite good filtration systems, the ground water still carries high levels of NO3- . 

To Summarize: Agribusiness as usual is not an option

In sum, the use of nitrogen derivatives in agriculture is not just an ecological problem affecting the biodiversity, but also decreases the availability of drinking water for us. The nitrogen pollution problem is increasing worldwide – in recent years this issue was recognized, and a European Nitrogen Assessment was formed to raise awareness. They came to the agreement that nitrogen containing agricultural runoff is not only contaminating our land, water, and food, but also the air. So, we actually should not only care about our Co2 footprint, but also about our nitrogen footprint. But is there a way to get out of this vicious circle?

Research in plant biology for a more sustainable use of fertilizers

As we have learned, the ways that nitrogen fertilizers (both inorganic and organic) are used in agriculture is far beyond optimal and actually gives rise to many problems. 

Let’s go back to where we started: We said that in a plant’s perfect world, they would be able to grow in the most perfect of conditions. However, perfect growing conditions are usually not the case. But just like we put on clothes to protect us from cold, plants have evolved mechanisms that enable them to cope with unfavorable conditions.Those built-in mechanisms allow the plant to change its own physiology. And this is where research in plant biology, such as the work of Dr Anna Podgorska, WiRe Fellow in 2021/22, may help us implement a more sustainable agricultural use of fertilizers. To put it more specifically: Research like Anna’s will help us find a well-dosed and targeted use of fertilizers that are as unharmful as possible. Anna’s research currently revolves around the question: Is there an alternative for the use of nitrate?

Ammonium – the model sibling of nitrate and nitrous gas?

Anna’s specific starting point is the analysis of the effects of ammonium on the metabolism of plants. Ammonium – NH4+ – is yet another nitrogen derivative that is used as a fertilizer. From an economic standpoint, things look positive:  the invention of the Haber–Bosch process, where atmospheric nitrogen (N2) converts to ammonia (NH3), enabled cheap production of NH4+ -based fertilizers.  Ammonium as a nitrogen source for plants is particularly attractive when compared with nitrate, as it is less susceptible to leaching from the soil solution. Also, from abiological point of view, ammonium seems to be the better nitrogen source for plants because it does not need to be reduced in order to be assimilated into metabolism. So, you might wonder, why don’t we use ammonium as the only nitrogen base in agriculture?

One of the most intriguing phenomena in plant physiology is that despite ammonium being more efficient energetically, most plants cultured on ammonium as the sole nitrogen source exhibit serious growth inhibition. In research, this is commonly referred to as ‘ammonium toxicity syndrome’. To date, the mechanisms underpinning the ammonium toxicity in plants have not been resolved. Anna’s research focuses on understanding mechanisms that affect plant development under ammonium nutrition. If we improve nitrogen use efficiency and aid the targeted breeding of plants that can handle ammonium fertilization efficiently, we will be able to reduce our industrial agriculture’s nitrogen footprint. This in turn will help us reduce global warming and keep our planet as liveable as it currently is. 

Understanding plants’ physiology and metabolism will help us save our climate

To put it in a nutshell, plants’ potential of adapting to various environmental conditions is insufficiently understood, especially with regard to crop breeding. This is where Anna’s research comes in: Understanding the plants’ mechanisms of environmental monitoring and acclimation is of fundamental importance if we are to transition to a sustainable agriculture that will also be fundamental to a climate friendly bioeconomy.

by Dr Rui Sun, Social Psychologist

Wellbeing is an age-old topic. Even though its meaning may differ across cultures and time, most people would agree that it is one of the most important themes in life. Going back to the Greeks, Aristotle declared that “happiness is the meaning and the purposes of life, the whole aim and end of human existence”. In the east, echoing Aristotle, the Dalai Lama also agreed that “the purpose of our lives is to be happy”.

Images © WiRe / Nikolaus Urban

In the series “33 questions” we introduce, in no particular order, our WiRe Fellows who are currently working on a research project here at the University of Münster. Why 33? Well, if we think of the rush hour of life, it is kind of the age that lies in its middle. And we also just like the number😉.

In today’s episode we are speaking with Louise, chemist and passionate lover of the Fluorine atom.